Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation. It has several characteristics that make is a desirable metal. Rink, energy technology division, argonne national laboratory introduction metal dusting is a metal loss process. Metal dusting in the heat treating industry page 1 64 tubes for the majority of their work. Metal dusting corrosion initiation in conversion of natural. Relationship of carbon crystallization to the metaldusting. Inconel alloy 693 offers the best resistance to metal dusting in chemical and petrochemical processing environments of any conventional alloy. Inconel alloys welcome to american special metal, corp. Carburization involves the absorption of carbon into steel or alloy during operation in a high temperature environment, typically above 1100f 593c.
Alloy 800 is an austenitic ironbased alloy, whereas alloy 602ca is a nickelbased alloy. Literature survey has shown that alloys behave differently in metal dusting conditions based on their composition and the. Inconel 600, 601 and 693 has been simulated in high carbon activity environments over a temperature range from 450 to 750c. Alloys such as n08830 and n08811 do not perform well in metal dusting environments.
The alloy also has excellent resistance to metal dusting in chemical and petrochemical processing environments. In such, gas that is capable of synthesizing water vapor contains h2 and co as well as water vapor. With all the different applications that metal is used, different characteristics are needed for each use. The oil and gas industries need a superalloy metal, like inconel, that can withstand extreme environments and volatile, corrosive gasses. The most fundamental of difference between them lies in their composition. How ever, in those furnaces where metal dusting is a significant pmblem they select tubes of no6333 alloy. Inconel is considered a super alloy and special metals with specific applications. Liu, mechanisms of metal dusting application to alloy composition, temperature and pressure 15th international corrosion. Metal dusting corrosion of nickelbased alloys request pdf.
Various grades of stainless steel, nickel and titanium alloys. The progress of metal dusting in the alloy matrix once carbide phases have formed has been extensively studied and documented in the literature 4a6,11a14. The corrosion manifests itself as a breakup of bulk metal to metal powder, hence the term, metal dusting. A novel approach to resist against metal dusting has been newly proposed based on the nondissociative adsorption of co gas on the metal. Mechanism of metal dusting corrosion by pitting of a chromiaforming alloy at atmospheric pressure and low gas velocity. The corrosion manifests itself as a breakup of bulk metal to metal powder hence the term, metal dusting. The mechanism was illustrated in the following diagram. Metal dusting is a severe form of corrosive degradation of metals and alloys at high temperatures 300850oc in carbonsupersaturated gaseous environments. Metal dusting, also known as catastrophic carburization or carbon rot, is metal waste, not embrittlement. Table 3 from study on initial stage of metal dusting. Metal dusting corrosion initiation in conversion of. Carbon from the carborizing environment enters the surface of the steel by diffusion, causing the metal to become embrittled and lose creep resistance and toughness.
Characterization of inconel 718 fabricated through powder bed. Metal dusting is a disintegration phenomenon of metals and alloys into fine, dustlike particles. Metal dusting is a prevalent issue in the industry of petrochemicals, specifically in reforming units and cracker furnaces. Pdf metal dusting of nickel and its alloys researchgate. Inconel 600, 601 and 693 has been simulated in high carbon activity environments over a temperature range from 450 to 750oc. The filler metal 617 is utilized in the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding however inconel welding electrode 617 is utilized for shielded metal arc welding. Metal dusting is a catastrophic form of corrosion that occurs when susceptible materials are exposed to environments with high carbon activities. Mechanism of metal dusting corrosion by pitting of a. For example, the addition of silicon can have a beneficial effect on resistance to metal dusting. All of the coatings except the amstar 888 and conforma clad lasted less than 18 months.
The alloy also has excellent resistance to metal dusting in chemical and petrochemical processing. To achieve good crystallinity, carbon dissolves, diffuses through the alloy, and precipitates at defects of iron carbide or nickel metal. Effects of metal dusting relevant exposures of alloy 601. Inconel 617 has excellent corrosion protection properties and is used in high temperature microchannel chemical reactors to mitigate metal dusting. Metal dusting leads to disintegration of such alloys as iron and nickelbased into a dust of particulate metal, metal carbide, carbon, andor oxide.
Thus, all monomer that is a main material in polymer production may undergo metal dusting. Inconel filler metal 53mdis used for the gastungstenarc and gasmetalarc welding of inconel alloy 693, and the overlaying of carbon steels and stainless steels to provide a nickelchromiumaluminum. Ns industries is now stocking inconel lower cost calls. Relationship of carbon crystallization to the metal. Fe, ni and co, as well as alloys based on these metals are all susceptible. What is the difference between inconel and incoloy. The metal dusting behaviour of alloy 600 is described in detail. American special metals core business is the distribution of nickel alloys and cobalt alloys. Inconel, inco alloys, superalloy, nickel based steel alloy. It occurs in strongly carburising environments at 400.
Metal dusting of nickelabase alloys wiley online library. A rule of thumb states that metal dusting will be reduced if the alloy can satisfy this criterion. Inconel, predominantly of nickelchrome, generally contains over 50% nickel, whereas incoloy l, a nickelironchromium alloy, has less than 50% nickel content. This phenomenon occurs under carburizing gas atmosphere having high carbon formation potential at high temperature with low oxygensteam partial pressure.
Metal dusting in a heat exchanger for synthesis gas made by a large grained alloy 800. Best resistance to metal dusting in chemical and petrochemical processing environments of any conventional nickelalloy currently manufactured. Haynes international haynes 625 alloy oxidation resistance continued amount of metal affected for hightemperature sheet 0. Inconel alloy 693 offers the best resistance to metal dusting in chemical and petrochemical processing environments of any conventional alloy currently manufactured. It occurs in strongly carburising environments at 400900c.
In the present study, a metal based powder bed additive manufacturing technique is utilized to create a square inconel 718 test coupon with a side length of 2. Inconel 601 is thus widely used in petrochemical and other process equipment, and several investigations have addressed its susceptibility to metal dusting. General corrosion, mechanical and physical properties and weldability results for this new alloy are discussed. The corrosion manifests itself as a breakup of bulk metal to metal powder. Best resistance to metal dusting in chemical and petrochemical processing environments of any conventional nickelalloy. Due to inconel 625s particularly strong thermal fatigue strength and oxidation.
When inconel is workhardened, tooling can wear out as heat and pressure builds. The initial stage of metal dusting is, however, analogous to the carbon formation on catalysts used in the production of synthesis gas but less described in the open literature. Alloy solutions to metal dusting problems in the chemical. Longterm testing of a wide variety of nickelbase and ironbase alloys has been conducted in an environment generated by an inlet gas composition of co20%. Metal dusting corrosion of nickelbased alloys iopscience. Metal dusting is often avoided in industry by designing around the critical metal dusting temperature range. Syngas is produced at temperatures above the critical range 800c and transferred to a boiler via a short transfer line where it is rapidly quenched to temperatures below the critical metal dusting range metal dusting environments. Metal dusting, a type of corrosion resulting from carbonaceous atmosphere, is a prominent cause of damage for high temperature components of synthetic gas production plants in a process of producing clean fuel. Jul 05, 20 inconel alloy 693 provides resistance to high temperature corrosion mechanisms. The prerequisite for metal dusting is that carbon activity in the gas phase has to be 1. In the right environment, it appears that any alloy can eventually metal dust. Inconel 625 material safety data sheet gpt industries. After the first machining pass, work hardening tends to plastically deform either the. Pdf pure nickel, nicu binary alloys, types 304 and 310 stainless steels and alloy 800h were all reacted with carbon supersaturated coh2h2o at.
Metal dusting corrosion of nickelbased alloys princeton. Inconel 800h, inconel 625, colmonoy 88, amstar 888, and conforma clad. In such, gas that is capable of synthesizing water vapor contains h2 and co as well. May 14, 2015 the most fundamental of difference between them lies in their composition. Metal dusting through active corrosion by carbon and oxygen chun model chun et al. The wide array of metals available to be manufactured into the component or part. Inconel filler metal 53mdis used for the gastungstenarc and gas metal arc welding of inconel alloy 693, and the overlaying of carbon steels and stainless steels to provide a nickelchromiumaluminum alloy corrosion resistant surface.
Sulfidation low or moderate nickel with high chromium content minimizes sulfidation attack at high temperatures. Effect of heat input on properties of inconel filler metal. On a more specific level, the major distinctions between the two are their applications and spheres of. Metal dusting can be found in different reforming units in the petrochemical industry. Of particular interest to the designer is the alloys resistance to metal dusting. Materials performance in metal dusting environment z. After the first machining pass, work hardening tends to plastically deform either the workpiece or the tool on subsequent passes. Pdf study on initial stage of metal dusting corrosive on.
Inconel filler metal 72m is used for the overlay cladding of ferrous materials used in high temperature applications, and the welding of nickelchromiumiron alloy astm b163, b166, b167, and b168 having uns number n06690 to itself, and to steels, and for welding. The high chromium and aluminum lev els provide excellent resistance to metal dusting in chemical and. Materials selection considerations for thermal process. Effect of heat input on properties of inconel filler metal 82 weld deposits study strongly suggests that the yield strength of a single phase weld metal is a function of dendrite arm spacing rather than grain. In the present study, a metalbased powder bed additive manufacturing technique is utilized to create a square inconel 718 test coupon with a side. Overall, nibased alloys corrode by a combination of carbon diffusion and precipitation in the alloy interior and atom migration through surface carbon deposits. Study on initial stage of metal dusting corrosive on inconel. Vdm alloy 690 nicrofer 6030 material data sheet no. Carefully inspecting tooling is critical for maximizing quality in inconel machining. High temperature alloys, nitronic, inconel, hastelloy. Inconel alloy 690 inconel alloy 601 inconel alloy 693 alloy 693 offers superior resistance to metal dusting, a particularly aggressive form of carburization that can cause failure after very short exposures. Pipe, tube, sheet, strip, plate, round bar, flat bar, forging stock, hexagon, wire and extruded section. Inconel alloy 690 inconel alloy 601 inconel alloy 693 alloy 693 offers superior resistance to metal dusting, a particularly aggressive form of carburization that can cause failure after very short.
Identification of the substancemixture and of the companyundertaking product name. The dusting of these alloys is normally in the form of pitting where the original material transforms into a dust of coke or graphite and nanocrystallinesized oxide particles. Inconel alloy 617 uns n06617 heanjia super metals co. Characterization of inconel 718 fabricated through powder. Inconel is a difficult metal to shape and to machine using traditional cold forming techniques due to rapid work hardening. The superalloy inconel 625 is especially useful for the processing systems required for natural gas production. Inconel alloy 693 provides resistance to high temperature corrosion mechanisms. Alloy solutions to metal dusting problems in the petrochemical industry pdf, 1. Carbon from the carborizing environment enters the.
It is therefore concluded that the mechanism of nickel dusting is one of graphite nucleation and growth within the near surface metal. A survey of erosion and corrosion resistant materials. This makes inconel even harder to work, causing more stress to tooling. Metal dusting, a type of corrosion resulting from carbonaceous atmosphere, is a prominent cause of damage for high temperature components of synthetic gas production plants in a process of. Pdf understanding metal dusting mechanisms researchgate. The alloys high chromium content provides it excellent resistance to oxidation and sulfidation. A ranking of the metal dusting resistance of different commercial nickelbase alloys was obtained. The mechanisms leading to metal dusting depend on the substrate material e.
Alloy 693 is a nickelchromiumironaluminum alloy with niobium addition. The sample is sectioned into six subsets, half of which are subjected to a solution treat and age heat. Rink, energy technology division, argonne national laboratory introduction metal dusting is a metal loss process that occurs in hot reactive gases. Uniformly attacked surface with coke and carburized zones. Vdm alloy 690 is characterised by very good resistance to fluoride containing hot nitric acid.723 1473 368 135 380 581 232 857 495 98 1491 929 1294 1015 1435 774 403 279 1328 913 1418 522 1035 776 444 330 147 575 771 642 372 464 1495 1324 705 474 148 67 784